Thursday, February 6, 2020

Organization Development Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Organization Development - Essay Example It is understated but valuable. It explains that organizational change involves unfreezing, then transformation and, finally, refreezing. The first step is the point at which an organization realizes its need for change. In the second step, the transformation occurs. After the changes in the organizational development have actually occurred, then the last step is where the changes are incorporated into the organization’s routine. Another theory is called the action-research model. In this model, the organizational development comes through identifying the problem. This involves developing a hypothesis and then data are analyzed. This theorem looks like it is recurrent in nature. It is cyclical. This means it can happen repeatedly during the process of change of the organization (van Aken & Berends, 2007). Another theory about organizational development is called the general system theory. It explains and emphasizes the importance of the organization’s external environment. It seems to suggest that an organization takes something from its environment, transforms it, and then gives it back to the environment when it has been changed. It describes the symbiotic relationship between an organization and its environment. It then becomes clear that the atmosphere of an organization is dynamic. This applies to both internal and external environments of an organization. Ideally, there is not a single moment when an organization is not looking for a solution, as real life is highly dynamic. This also describes the market place. When an organization unfreezes, its starts looking for how it can change a prevailing condition. According to van Aken & Berends (2007), this happens in search of a solution. An organization identifies a problem which hitherto has been a solution to another previous problem. In other words, before unfreezing, the organization had the same conditions because

Wednesday, January 29, 2020

How Technology Advancement has influenced Computer Ethics Essay Example for Free

How Technology Advancement has influenced Computer Ethics Essay The 21st century has been dubbed †the digital age† because of the monumental achievements witnessed in the Information, Communication and Technology (ICT) fields, which have impacted every aspect of human life. The internet has become one of the most lucrative Information Technology (IT) tool which has made communication and exchange of information faster and efficient. Consequently, it has transformed how people consume information. In spite of its benefits, the internet has led to a severe decline in ethics among internet users (Salman, Saad Ali, 2013). The widespread use of internet has led to increased and sophisticated crimes, terrorism and wars (May, 2004). This essay will be based on a case involving hackers who hold Personal Computers (PC) hostage. It will outline the potential computer ethics issues associated with holding computers hostage. It will also highlight methods that computer users could use to prevent this type of attack. Moreover, it will highlight governmental legislations that could be enacted against this type of attack. Ethics is defined as the principles governing both right and wrong among free humans (free moral agents), whose actions are influenced by their freedom of choice (Soskolne, n.d). Advancement of technology presents both positive and negative impacts to a society. Technological advancements have led to a rapid decline in social and ethical issues regarding to security and privacy of personal information (Shieh Tanthuwanit, 2004). One of the major forms of social ethic violation includes hackers holding personal computers hostage, and hence infringing on both privacy and security of targeted computer users. This in turn compromises information security concerned with the protection of information confidentiality, availability  and integrity (Gordon Loeb, 2002) According to Perlroth (2014), cyber criminals have devised a new mechanism of freezing computers through malwares, and then demanding a steep ransom pay before unlocking them. Perlroth (2014) adds that computer owners throughout the world have fallen victims of this malicious attack, which denies them access to their personal computers and files stored on them. The hackers instead serve them with a â€Å"pop up† message demanding some ransom payment before their computers could be unlocked. Hackers holding computers hostage infringe on personal privacy, and gain access to sensitive information regarding online bank accounts, security passwords and other highly private information (Perlroth, 2014). Security systems and other general-purpose computers are also vulnerable to this kind of attack because, if these hackers can break into users’ accounts even from [GoDaddy] domains to create malicious subdomains through which they send mails to target clients (Perlroth, 2014), then every computer system is vulnerable to such attacks. This means that not only is the privacy of the computer users compromised, but also the security of their data and the general security of their computer systems (The Canadian Press, 2014). In order to prevent hackers from holding computers hostage, computers users should double check their domain names, user accounts or web addresses before responding to any email clicks. In line to this, Perlroth (2014) observes that: Hackers were breaking into GoDaddy users’ accounts with stolen passwords and setting up what is known as a subdomain †¦ hackers would set up the Web address†¦ then send emails to customers †¦ because it appeared to come from a trusted source – was more likely to lure clicks. Likewise also, users should either contact an IT professional to help them remove the ransomware incase infected, or they can wipe their computers clean through formatting them and reinstalling new Operating system as well (Perlroth, 2014). In addition, professional network security personnel should be consulted in order to ensure that passwords, firewalls, authentications and proxy servers among other security utilities are properly set and enhanced to fortify system security (French, 2012) Although the hunting, catching and eventual convicting of these hackers has not yet achieved substantial success (Perlroth, 2014), the government should enact privacy laws that pronounce higher penalty for perpetrators of personal privacy and security infringement so that their benefit is less in value when compared to pending punishment. Some of the active laws that have been enacted to curb this tragedy include the Computer Fraud and Abuse Acts which cover the use of malicious codes including worms, viruses, and other malicious programs intended to alter or damage data in a user’s computer (Title 18 U.S.C Section 1030). Another legislation that could counter this attack is the National Information Infrastructure Protection Act (NIIPA) which criminalizes the transmission of a command, program, or code with malicious intentions [like holding a compute hostage] (Colombell, 2002). In conclusion, when hackers hold computers hostage, they infringe on the personal privacy and security of personal information. During the period when the computers are held hostage, computer users not only risk having their sensitive information accessed and sometimes damaged, but they are also financially exploited in order to have their computers unlocked. Some of the feasible strategies of avoiding this attack include exercising a lot of care regarding the types of sites visited and clicked, and avoiding sending payments to hackers whenever a computer is hacked. Instead seek immediate assistance from a professional who will help you to manually get rid of the ransomware without paying the hackers off. References Colombell, M., R. (2002). The Legislative Response to the Evolution of Computer Viruses. 8 RICH. J.L. TECH. 18. Retrieved from French, A., M. (2012). A Case Study on E-Banking Security – When Security Becomes Too Sophisticated for the User to Access Their Information. Journal of Internet Banking and Commerce, 17(2). Gordon, L., Loeb, M. (2002). The Economics of Information Security Investment. ACM Transactions on Information and System Security, 5 (4), 438–457. May, M. (2004). Federal Computer Crime Laws. SANS Institute. Retrieved from Show=federal-computer-crime-laws-1446cat=legal Perlroth, N. (2014, April 22). Hackers holding your PC to ransom. Deccan Herald. Retrieved from Salman, A., Saad, S., Ali, M., N. (2013). Dealing with Ethical Issues among Internet Users: Do We Need Legal Enforcement? Asian Social Science, 9(8): 3-8. Shieh, M., Tanthuwanit, K. (2004). Privacy and Security: Internet Hacking and Surveillance. Retrieved from Title 18 U.S.C Section 1030, internet, Soskolne, C., L. (n.d). Workplace Health and Safety Information: Ethical Issues. Retrieved from The Canadian Press (2014, April 14). Computer hacking expert says more bad news to come from Heartbleed. Edmonton Journal. Retrieved from

Monday, January 20, 2020

Shakespeares Macbeth and Euripedes Medea :: comparison compare contrast essays

Shakespeare's Macbeth and Euripedes' Medea  Ã‚   Shakespeare's Macbeth, and Euripedes' Medea, are both tragic plays in the classical sense. Both Medea and Macbeth lust for the unattainable, and that lust destroys them. It cannot be said which character is a truly tragic figure, because both fit the description. However, if either character deserves more sympathy it is Madea, the jilted wife, not Macbeth the King killer. Macbeth's lust for power and his willingness to please his wife leads to his downfall. He murders the children of his one time friend, and suffers the consequences of that sin. Medea murders her own children in her quest to win back her lover Jason. She does this to seek revenge, since Jason sees the children not as theirs, but as his. She also, like Macbeth seeks to kill her rival, Jason's new lover, the daughter of King Creon of Corinth and a 'real Greek'. Both Euripedes and Shakespeare use the supernatural to enhance their plays. Macbeth is influenced by the prophecy of the three witches. Madea, who is a witch he rself, is influenced by the mythological Gods of ancient Greece. Macbeth's and Medea's ambitions and lust lead to tragic conclusions in their lives. Urged by his henpecking wife, Macbeth lusts for the throne. In the beginning of the play, Macbeth is likeable, but we soon see his dark side that will lead to his tragic downfall. The play starts with Macbeth and Banquo as co-leaders of the Scottish army, are returning from battle when they meet three witches. The witches prophesy that Macbeth will become Thane of Cawder and, later, king. bodyOffer() 1. Witch. All hail, Macbeth. Hail to thee, Thane of Glamis! 2. Witch. All hail, Macbeth. Hail to thee, Thane of Cawdor! 3. Witch. All hail, Macbeth, that shalt be King here- after! (Act 1. Sc. III, lines 50-55) They tell Banquo that he will not be king himself but he will have his descendants as kings: 1. Witch. Lesser than Macbeth, and greater. 2. Witch. Not so happy, yet happier. 3. Witch. Thou shalt get Kings, though thou be none. So all hail, Macbeth and Banquo! (Act 1, SC. III lines 70-74) Here we see Macbeth's ambitions begin to appear. He begins to consider the possibility of becoming king! There is a chance that King Duncan might choose Macbeth, a cousin, as his successor, but Macbeth’s hopes are destroyed when Duncan names his son, Malcolm.

Sunday, January 12, 2020

Lazy Americans

A college professor wrote an article aboyt how she thinks American student are lazy. Different people have different oppinions on this subject. Although many believe that american students are lazy and others believe they are not. I think it just depends on your background, and family life. You cant just judge someone by what they dowithout knowing where they come from. Students from different countries have great work ethics, they pay attention well in class, and do really good on their work. most of their effprt comes from relations with family. For foreign students they come to ameica to study because the education is better so their parents bring them here. Foreign students work really hard , because they came here to study and they think that its a great opportunity. But i have also met some foreign exchange students that are lazy and have really bad work ethics, and i have talked to them and they are having problems at home. Most people tink that american students are lazy, but i have met some really out going Americans. My friend Sarah Doud, she is American and she is a 3. student andshe is a hard working student. I know i kid, his name is lewis. He is a 4. 0 student and is taking way advanced classes and he is american. Those two examples i just gave are American and hard working. And they come from loving families and have loving friends. I have also met some lazy americans as well, but they come from bad families that dont care about their childs grades. There are also the middle students who are American and dont do bad, but dont do good. These students come from families who dont really care about their grades. And its mostly students whos parents travelor are rarely home because of their work. But the students know better than to let their grades slip. These students are self motivated but i dont think that is enough. I think that they need more motivation. There are many lazy students, and there are also many hard working students. I think it just depends on the students family problems if any. Sure habits are hard to break, but there is a reason in the first place why they have those habbits. American teenages need more motivation, because i dont think they get enough.

Friday, December 27, 2019

Resource Based And Market Based View Of Strategy - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 9 Words: 2698 Downloads: 3 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Business Essay Type Narrative essay Did you like this example? Resource based view (RBV) of strategy concentrates in recognising and utilising the organizations resources. It is an important, essential and an inside out management concept that is useful in developing a successful strategy. The company evaluates the environment on the basis of available resources at its expense. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Resource Based And Market Based View Of Strategy" essay for you Create order Market based view (MBV) of strategy designs the company policies and strategy based on the trends and the nature of the industrys environment. It helps in selecting the market combination for the product, in which the company utilises its strategy. The strategy helps in designing the structure and strategy of the company based on the market analysis of the industry. Dells Strategy Dell had moved on from its prior resource based view of strategy to market based view of strategy, due to the hurdles faced after recession and from its market competitors like HP. Dell started outsourcing for its product manufacturing like Taiwans Foxconn Group and sales to stores like PC World, Wal-Mart and many more. The company started to restructure its strategy just as it lost the position as the worldwide market share leader in computer industry to HP. According to research firm IDC, HP had a worldwide PC market share of 19.3% for the quarter ending June 30 compared to Dells 16.1%. In 2005, Dell dominated the playing field with 18.2% market share compared to HPs 15.7%. (Can Dells Turnaround Strategy Keep HP at Bay, 2007). Dells success had been its customer approach, You tell us what you want and we will build it for you. That approach has worked well with corporate [information technology] people and professional users. But that is a cut-throat market since these peop le have a good knowledge of prices. Dell always had a hard time with the non-expert buyers. (Can Dells Turnaround Strategy Keep HP at Bay, 2007). Dell started to refashion the companys strategy to largely compete with its rival HP. With the change in the companys strategy challenges were faced, with its two pillars of business model supply chain efficiency and built to order product sales to its customer (Can Dells Turnaround Strategy Keep HP at Bay, 2007). Strategic Options Product Development Pursue Mid-Range Server Growth By 2001, Dell was the market leader in entry level servers, but had no presence in the mid-range server market. Pursuing this growth option could result in increased market share and higher profits due to the higher selling prices and markups of these units, but could be risky if technology suddenly changes. Increased post sale costs are also a concern, as server sales dont just stop upon delivery; they require continued service regarding reliability, serviceability, availability, and manageability. Pursue Associated Services Growth within the US, 2000 service revenues accounted for over 37% of $2 billion in total revenues. This business unit was becoming an increasingly important part of Dells portfolio with longevity, able to stand the test of time and market uncertainty, no matter what turn technology took. Market Stagnation While the market is recovering from recession, Dell should focus on its current market sha re. Once, the market is up and moving, Dell can start employing its strategies for achieving traction. Though, this option could prove risky and increase the gap between its competitors in the process. RECOMMENDATIONS IMPLEMENTATION Since, the market growth has stopped significantly compared to late 20th and early 21st century. The only improvements are required in the form of limited PC software/hardware upgrades until the state of the economy is revived. Thus, Dell needs to start investing in other areas like mass storage, servers and services in new markets. Dells ability to offer its products at minimal rates, would allow it to gain a competitive advantage against its rivals. Also, the customer service provided by Dell would aid the company in keeping hold of its customers. An expansion of the services group should also be pursued based on customer needs, which will vary around the globe. While, Dell continued to partner with third-party services firms, it should also bulk up on its own services capabilities so it can provide customers with more competitive broad services offerings. Dell needs to realize that it would have to expand its services capability significantly in order to be taken seriously in the industry (Breen, Bill, 2004, living in Dell Time. Fast Company). Dell should also consider its entry in new markets with its current products which have been left untapped such as Chin in Asia, Brazil and Argentina in South America. Being the first to enter these markets would allow dell mark it dominance. The company should study the trends and nature of the new markets in minute detail to gain complete advantage and increase its market share segment around the globe. Hence, Dell should need to consider a wide range of options, including the ones mentioned above and, plan and design its strategy in accordance to its resources. References: Wharton School of University of Pennsylvania, 2007, Can Dells Turnaround Strategy Keep HP at Bay viewed 10th April 2011 Breen, Bill, (2004), Living in Dell Time, media release, November 2004, Fast Company, viewed 12th April 2011, Bibliography Nanette Byrnes and Peter Burrows, Where Dell Went Wrong, Business Week, February 19, 2007, pp. 62-63 Stefan Stern, Dells Chief Kevin Rollins-My Part in His Downfall, Financial Times, Febru ­ary 6, 2007, p. 10. Thomas J. Peters and Robert H. Waterman, Jr., In Search of Excellence: Lessons from Americas Best-Run Companies (New York, NY: Warner Books, 1982). About Dell Ventures. 2004. Dell Computer Corporation. 30 Apr 2004. Hill, Charles W. L., and Jones, Gareth R. Strategic Management Theory: An Integrated Approach. USA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Pearson Publication, Exploring Corporate Strategy by Gerry Johnson, Kevan Scholes and Richard Whittington Answer 4) Dell is the worlds leading computer systems company. They design, build and customize products and services to satisfy a wide range of customer requirements. From the server, storage and Premier Services needs of the largest global corporations, to those of consumers at home. They do business directly with customers, one at a time, and believe. They do it better than anyone on the planet. We attribute Dells success within the computer industry to its unique, low-cost business model, direct sales approach and collaborative research and development. By focusing on leveraging its core competency in supply-chain management and low-cost manufacturing within mature technology segments, such as PCs, Dell has a proven strategy to disrupt traditional technology business models that rely on proprietary technology or multistage sales and distribution. A key part of Dells success stems from leveraging widely available industry technology within a low-cost manufacturing framework as a way of displacing the competition. All this was made possible because of the Vision of one man, Michael Dell. Michael Saul Dell (born February 23, 1965) is an American business magnate and the founder and chief executive officer of Dell Inc. He is one of the richest people in the world, ranked 44 with a net worth of US$14.6 billion in 2011. Michael Dell is considered a very accessible CEO and a role model for young executives because he had done what many of them were trying to do. He delegated authority to subordinates, believeing that the results came from tuning loose talented people who can be relied upon to do what they are supposed to do. He was a visionary leader!! Visionary leadership goes beyond charisma. Visionary leadership is the ability to create and articulate a realistic, credible, attractive vision of the future for an organization or organizational unit that grows out of and improves upon the present. This vision is so energizing that it in effect jump-starts the future by calling forth the skills, talents, and resources to make it happen. A vision differs from other forms of direction setting in several ways: A vision has clear and compelling imagery that offers an innovative way to improve Vision taps peoples emotions and energy ( Leadership Team Management) Michael Dell had them both. The key properties of a vision seem to be inspirational possibilities that are value-centered, realizable, with superior imagery and articulation. A vision is likely to fail if it doesnt offer a view of the future that is clearly and demonstrably better for the organization and its members (Inspirational Approaches to Leadership, 2008). Desirable visions fit the times and circumstances and reflect the uniqueness of the organization. People in the organization must also believe that the vision is attainable. Michael Dell has created a vision of a business that allows Dell Computer to sell and deliver a finished PC directly to a customer in fe wer than eight days. The uniqueness of Michael Dells management style lies in its combination of reaching for the heights of perfection while burrowing down into every last data point. No rival has been able to imitate it. He believes that the status quo is never good enough and that once a problem is discovered, it must be dealt with quickly. He refuses to dwell on success, and instead focuses upon how improvements can be made. Excuses are not accepted. Being a hero at Dell means saving money and every employee is expected to focus on cost control. Michael Dell appears to embrace the following Fayol principles: Authority and Responsibility: Michael Dell exhibited his right to give orders and his power to exhort subordinates for obedience when he fired his top European managers because they didnt cut costs deeply enough. Unity of Direction: There is a singleness of purpose (continuous improvement and cost control) that makes possible a single plan of action to guide m anagers and workers in their use of organizational resources. Initiative: Initiative is required by employees, who are expected to identify ways to continuously improve upon the companys past accomplishments. Discipline: only highly disciplines employees are capable of overcoming the temptation to make excuses and consistently strive towards the achievement of corporate goals. Dell announced an aggressive global target of $62B in revenue by 2006, which meant the firm would need to make talent acquisition and development a global priority. At the same time, Dell wanted to continue to focus on cost effectiveness and operational efficiency. The companys cornerstone values and philosophy are expressed as five elements, which together comprise The Soul of Dell: ÃÆ' ¢Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ ¬Ãƒâ€šÃ‚ ¢ Customers ÃÆ' ¢Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ ¬Ãƒâ€šÃ‚ ¢ The Dell Team ÃÆ' ¢Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ ¬Ãƒâ€šÃ‚ ¢ Direct Relationships ÃÆ' ¢Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ ¬Ãƒâ€šÃ‚ ¢ Global Citizenship ÃÆ'  ¢Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ ¬Ãƒâ€šÃ‚ ¢ Winning The company was at a point where it was asking its managers and leaders to lead differently than they ever have before. While reaching the aggressive numbers was essential, it was not enough. Instead, leaders were being called on to get to the numbers while engaging their people by offering inspiration and extraordinary leadership, integrating the Soul of Dell into their leadership styles (Kathleen Woodhouse, Michael Reidy; 2004). Below is the diagrammatic view of strategic decision making and leadership skill development at Dell. Image courtesy of : Outcomes: ÃÆ' ¢Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ ¬Ãƒâ€šÃ‚ ¢ Prepared for greater leadership roles ÃÆ' ¢Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ ¬Ãƒâ€šÃ‚ ¢ Expanded support network ÃÆ' ¢Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ ¬Ãƒâ€šÃ‚ ¢ Greater insight into self and others ÃÆ' ¢Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ ¬Ãƒâ€šÃ‚ ¢ Development Plan For any organization to be successful, leadership and management style should get altered with the life cycle of the organization. The style should match the organizations phase. Figure below shows different leadership and delegation of authority styles with organizations life cycle. Image courtesy of : Dells strategies were also very well matched with organizations internal and external environments. Five Forces Analysis The framework formed using Michael Porters Five Forces model helps the managers to analyse the competitive forces within an industry, which assists in identifying threats and opportunities to an organization within the industry to which it belongs. Rivalry among the established firms, substitute products, potential competitors, bargaining power of buyers and, bargaining power of suppliers are the Michael Porters Five Forces. Another force, which is referred very rarely, called the complementors. Following three of the five forces, which primarily affect the personal computer industry and Dell in particular, are discussed, proving the personal computer industrys unfavourable features. The Rivalry among established firms is the most dominant forces within the personal computer industry. Based on Dells Strategic group, the industry can be studied as a consolidated industry sector, due to the industrys nature of limited competition established by the leaders like Dell, Hewlett Packa rd and Gateway. As a reason of oligopoly nature of the industry, the stakes for rivalry are high, as a result of a particular companys actions or moves directly aimed at affecting its competitors. A primary example can be made of HPs action selling home computers for $500, as a result of which other manufactures like Dell were forced to offer similar low-end systems. This affected the profit of rival manufactures, as the customers started flocking to get their hands on the new low-end systems, rather than the mid-range computers priced at $1000 which were sold prior to that time. Additionally, the demand has been declining, as the customers were satisfied or the real urge to upgrade their computers. As a result of which, the intensity of rivals rose, compelling the manufactures to combat to maintain their share of the market and customers. Due to these factors and high exit barriers for large manufacturers the rivalry between the established organizations within the personal compute r industry is very high. The second force is the bargaining power of the buyers, which is also high in this industry. The common masses may not have the ability to bargain at large with the computer manufactures. However, large buyers like corporations and, educational institutions have significant power, due to the simple reason of buying products in massive quantities, enabling them to influence the price of the products set by the manufacturers. Whether large or individual customers the cost for switching from one manufacturer to another are minimal. Since most of the systems are based upon Wintel standard design specifications. Lastly, the ease of configuring a system yourself by purchasing the necessary components directly from the hardware suppliers or from retail outlets allow the customers to back away from the manufacturers, threatening the industry as a whole. The last force is the power of the suppliers of the industry, that is the industry providing the computer co mponents, is also high. The primary reason to account for this force to exist is, because of the limited substitutes to majority of the components, like microprocessors and operating systems. Moreover, the costs for switching between the suppliers are significant. It would also cause problems due to hardware and software incompatibilities. For instance, was a company to move from Intel to AMD processors, they would have to go to another supplier for their motherboards, which could ultimately cause other incompatibilities, forcing them to find yet other suppliers for other components. Another example is if a company decided to move from Windows to a variant of Linux. While the operating system itself is less expensive, it is much more difficult to find applications for Linux, there are many hardware components which do not have the drivers necessary to run upon Linux, and the learning curve is quite steep for customers, which would force a manufacturer to invest in a larger customer support staff. This analysis provided a great deal of insightful and intriguing information into Dells success, both within the personal computer industry, as well as their other ventures into the consumer electronics and computer peripheral industries. Although extremely successful in its own right, this analysis proves that without their competition, Dell would most likely not have been so successful. Much of their success came from the fact that their rivals, namely HP/Compaq and Gateway pushed Dell to improve their customer service to differentiate themselves from the competition. Furthermore, due to significant price wars within the industry, Dell had to improve their manufacturing process, quickly adopting a just-in-type system, in order to keep their manufacturing costs low, allowing them to pursue a low-cost leadership strategy alongside their differentiation strategy. References:- Kathleen Woodhouse, Michael Reidy, Accelerating the Development of High Potentials: Strategic Leadership @Dell, 2004, viewed on 8th April 2011, Inspirational Approaches to Leadership, April 2008, viewed on 8th April 2011, Leadership and Team Management, Transactional, Charismatic and Transformational Leadership, viewed on 6th April 2011,

Thursday, December 19, 2019

The Role Of Dea Is A Linear Programming Methodology...

The related research uses a variety of variables. Based on the nature of DEA, the number of variables in the model affects the results. Given imperfect data, researchers often must make tradeoffs in selecting input and output variables. In this research, in order to verify the stability of the DEA model, a stability test is conducted by changing the number of inputs and outputs. To get a fuller picture, four models are developed for this test. Spearman correlation coefficients are calculated to assess the impact of the variation. DEA is a linear programming methodology measuring the relative performance and efficiency of multiple DMUs when the production process is composed of a difficult structure of multiple inputs and outputs [38]. A†¦show more content†¦Details of the linear form of a CRS model may be found in Chapter 2 of Cooper [39]. The dual of the linear model reduces the number of constraints and makes the linear problem easier to solve. It is given below [39, 40]: where is the measure of the efficiency of DMUo, the DMU in the set of DMUs rated relative to the others; and is the dual weight assigned to DMUs. Constant returns to scale are assumed in the above model. When the constraint is added, we have a variable return to scale model [6]. The DEA estimates of is an indicator of efficiency. It measures the distance between the observed input/output combination and the efficiency frontier. The Malmquist Productivity Index (MPI) is based on ideas similar to the DEA, but MPI allows comparisons between two periods. Assume the technology at is implied in a set , where all feasible are included, i.e., .The output distance function, based on , is . The distance function increases output as much as possible for given input and technology at time . Following Fà ¤re et al. [41] and Boisso et al. [42], MPI is defined as: Rearranging the terms in formula (4), following Fà ¤re et al. [41], we obtain the subsequent formula: The MPI is thus decomposed into two elements, efficiency change , and technological change . The distance functions in the MPI can be calculated by linear programming methods similar to those used in the DEA. DEA constructs a productionShow MoreRelatedThis Study Aims To Evaluate The Efficiency And Productivity1439 Words   |  6 PagesIran over the period 2005–14. A nonparametric data envelopment analysis (DEA) model is used to estimate the relative technical efficiency and productivity change of these companies. In addition, the distribution of efficiency based on geographic classification, size, and the type of the company, city, or province, is assessed. A stability test is also conducted in order to verify the robustness of the proposed model. Results demonstrate that the average technical efficiency of companies increasedRead MoreThe Usefulness Of Study Of Bank Cost And Efficiency7640 Words   |  31 Pagesmore a simple institution where we exchange money but an agency considered to be speculative and hopeful. There is no doubt that the prosperity in modern society benefits a lot from the development of commercial activities, where bank plays a main role in. People make money through work or investment. So they divide their income into two major parts : one part is considered as profit ,with which people may consume or do reinvestment or put it into their account as the deposit. The other part is used